Scientific name: Panthera pardus saxicolor
Iran’s mountainous north is home to the greatest concentration of Persian leopards (also called the Caucasian leopard) left on earth.
They are also native to eastern Turkey, the Caucasus mountains, southern Turkmenistan, and parts of western Afghanistan.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus fusca
On the Indian subcontinent, topographical barriers to the dispersal of this subspecies are the Indus River in the west, and the Himalayas in the north. In the east, the lower course of the Brahmaputra and the Ganges Delta form natural barriers to the distribution of the Indochinese leopard. Indian leopards are distributed all over India, in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and parts of Pakistan. In the Himalayas they are sympatric with snow leopards up to 5,200 meters (17,100 ft) above sea level.
A study under review has found that leopard population in India has dropped by almost 70-80% in the last century.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus japonensis
It is estimated that there are about 2500 North Chinese Leopards left in the wild.
Historic records from before 1930 indicate that North-Chinese leopards lived near Beijing and in the mountains to the north-west. They possibly ranged up to the southern Ussuri region. Today, only small and isolated populations remain.
About 100 North-Chinese leopards are kept in zoos worldwide, with the vast majority in Europe.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus kotiya
The Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) is a leopard subspecies native to Sri Lanka. Classified as Endangered by IUCN, the population is believed to be declining due to numerous threats including poaching for trade and human-leopard conflicts. No subpopulation is larger than 250 individuals.
As of December 2011, there are 75 captive Sri Lankan leopards in zoos worldwide.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus delacouri
The Indochinese leopard is a leopard subspecies native to mainland Southeast Asia and southern China. In Indochina, leopards are rare outside protected areas and threatened by habitat loss due to deforestation as well as poaching for the illegal wildlife trade. The trend of the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus melas
The Javan leopard is a leopard subspecies confined to the Indonesian island of Java and classified as critically endangered by IUCN since 2008. The population is estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend.
In 1997, there were 14 Javan leopards in European zoos.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus nimr
The Arabian leopard is a leopard subspecies native to the Arabian Peninsula and classified as Critically Endangered by IUCN since 1996. Fewer than 200 wild individuals were estimated to be alive in 2006. The population comprises fewer than 250 mature individuals and is severely fragmented. Subpopulations are isolated and not larger than 50 mature individuals. The population is thought to decline continuously.
The Arabian leopard is one of the smallest leopard subspecies. It was tentatively affirmed as a distinct subspecies by genetic analysis from a single captive leopard from Israel of south Arabian origin, which appeared most closely related to the African leopard.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus pardus
African leopards inhabited a wide range of habitats within Africa, from mountainous forests to grasslands and savannahs, excluding only extremely sandy desert. They are most at risk in areas of semi-desert, where scarce resources often result in conflict with nomadic farmers and their livestock.
Scientific name: Panthera pardus orientalis
Of all the leopards, the Amur leopard is the most critically endangered.
The situation is criticalas and only few as 45 adults remaining in the wild, in Primorye region of southeastern Russia and the Jilin Province of northeast China.
The Amur leopard is also known as the Far Eastern leopard.